Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of , within the city proper,1,, in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe.
Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization. The city is also the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city.
In , Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza.
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of and , locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, locks, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme.
By , the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen, Rotterdam, and Utrecht. In October , historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat.
Amsterdam was granted city rights in either or , from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League. It has an area of square kilometres and a population of 2,, in within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today.
It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in , combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation.
The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with millions passengers in In , Paris received The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology.
In the s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56, gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. Businesses may also be social non-profit enterprises or state-owned public enterprises operated by governments with specific social, a business owned by multiple private individuals may form as an incorporated company or jointly organise as a partnership.
Countries have different laws that may ascribe different rights to the business entities. The word business can refer to an organization or to an entire market sector or to the sum of all economic activity. Compound forms such as agribusiness represent subsets of the broader meaning. Businesses aim to maximize sales to have their income exceed their expenditures, resulting in a profit, the owner operates the business alone and may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, partnership, A partnership is a business owned by two or more people.
In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business, the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are, general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships.
Corporation, The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a legal personality from its owners. Corporations can be either government-owned or privately owned and they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations.
A privately owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, a privately owned, for-profit corporation can be either privately held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative, Often referred to as a co-op, a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit, a cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, and they share decision-making authority.
Cooperatives are typically classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives, cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected. Franchises, A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open, franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse.
One out of retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. Real estate businesses sell, invest, construct and develop properties — including land, residential homes, retailers, wholesalers, and distributors act as middlemen and get goods produced by manufacturers to the intended consumers, they make their profits by marking up their prices.
Most stores and catalog companies are distributors or retailers, transportation businesses such as railways, airlines, shipping companies that deliver goods and individuals to their destinations for a fee. Massage can be applied with the hands, fingers, elbows, knees, forearm, feet, aquatic massage and bodywork is performed with recipients submersed or floating in a warm-water therapy pool.
In distinction the ancient Greek word for massage was anatripsis, archaeological evidence of massage has been found in many ancient civilizations including China, India, Japan, Korea, Egypt, Rome, Greece, and Mesopotamia.
The Nei-jing is a compilation of knowledge known up to that date. Massage is referred to in 30 different chapters of the Nei Jing and it specifies the use of different massage techniques and how they should be used in the treatment of specific ailments, and injuries.
Traditional Thai massage is based on a combination of Indian. Jivaka is known today as Father Doctor in Thailand, BC, A possible biblical reference documents daily treatments with oil of myrrh as a part of the beauty regimen of the wives of Xerxes.
BC, Hippocrates wrote The physician must be experienced in many things, BC Charaka Samhita believed to be the oldest of the three ancient treatises of Ayurvedic medicine, including massage. Sanskrit records indicate that massage had been practiced in India long before the beginning of recorded history, AD, Dr Sun Si Miao introduces ten new massage techniques and systematized the treatment of childhood diseases using massage therapy.
AD, China establishes a department of massage therapy within the Office of Imperial Physicians, middle-Ages, Medical knowledge, including that of massage, made its way from Rome to Persia in the Middle Ages. Many of Galens manuscripts, for instance, were collected and translated by Hunayn ibn Ishaq in the 9th century. Later in the 11th century copies were translated back into Latin, and again in the 15th and 16th centuries and this renewal of the Galenic tradition during the Renaissance played a very important part in the rise of modern science.
One of the greatest Persian medics was Avicenna, also known as Ibn Sina and he was the foremost philosopher of medieval Islam and also a great philosopher, logician and medic.
AD, Evidence of massage abortion, involving the application of pressure to the pregnant abdomen and it depicts a demon performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the underworld. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, a big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs.
Such cities are associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas. Once a city expands far enough to another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world, in terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai.
There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces.
The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution, the Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development.
The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production, the increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In his book, Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form.
According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population.
To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example, Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, when the cost of transport is taken into account, the figure rises to , square kilometres. Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain, the urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but this view is not widely accepted.
In his book City Economics, Brendan OFlaherty asserts Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages, OFlaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually associated with businesses. Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well, increasing returns to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost.
To offer an example of these concepts, OFlaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why cities were built, in this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. Murphy, Great bordellos of the world. McGinn, The economy of prostitution in the Roman world: We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information.
For your convenience the search term is already added to the search box. You can also change the category of required goods. The "Health" category is selected right now, so the search will be done in the web stores offering today's sale of medicines, pharmaceutical products, medical equipment related products and services.
Thus, in just one click, you can check the current prices, offers, discounts, available goods, etc. Also make sure to check the today's sales in the selected online stores listed below.
The Valley, West End, etc. Bandar Seri Begawan, etc. Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc. Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc. Democratic Republic of the Congo: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.
Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, etc. Nadi, Suva, Viti Levu Island, etc. Bora Bora, Mo'orea, Papeete, Tahiti, etc. Franceville, Libreville, Moanda, Port-Gentil, etc. Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc. Douglas, Port Erin, etc. Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc. Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc. Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc. Blantyre, Lilongwe, Zomba, etc. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.
Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc. Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc. Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.